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初中英语语法大全

时间:2019-07-05 01:25:44    来源:     浏览次数:0    

初中英语语法总结

一.thanks for和thanks to: Thanks for your helping me with the work.

(表达对对方为自己做了某事的感谢,后无补充的结果。)

Thanks to your suggestion, I didn t make such mistakes.

(表达感谢由于某方所做的有利的事,出现了后面的结果。)

二.find和think部分用法: + 宾语 + 宾语补足语。(代替宾从)

宾补有以下情况:1.名词短语,John found his son a clever boy.

2.形容词短语,Mrs. Smith thinks her husband kind of lazy.

3.有时宾补后可接带to不定式,I found it hard to fool the girl.

三.would like/want/feel like: 1 would like,和want类似:◇都可接名词短语:I would like/ want another three desks. ◇都可接带to 不定式:I would like/ want to go out for a walk. ◇都可接sb,然后再跟带to 不定式: I would like you to give me a hand.

2 feel like: ◇后也可接名词短语:Do you feel like some tea?

◇后若接动词,须用动词ing形式:Do you feel like having a walk? I don t feel like drinking tea.【feel like常用于疑问句或否定句中。】

四.词序易错的短语:1 形容词修饰不定代词或不定副词,形容词

在后面。Is there anything delicious in the fridge?

Nothing serious. There is something wrong with the computer.

I want to go somewhere warm.

2 else修饰疑问词和不定代词、不定副词,也放在后面。

What else can you see in the picture? Who else is in the room?

Do you have anything else to say? Where else can you see it?

3 enough修饰形容词和副词,enough 放在后面。

This sweater is cheap enough. Nemo is old enough to work.

He ran fast enough to catch up with the dog.

五.对 评价 、 天气 的提问之区别:1What do you think of ?=

How do you like ? 你对 怎么看? (How ?句中有like,是动词。) 2What s the weather like in ? = How is the weather in ? 的天气什么样? (What ?句中有like,是介词 像 。)

六.双宾结构:pass/ give/ teach/ offer/ lend/ send/ sell/ call/ show/buy/

ask/ tell/ build等可加双宾结构。即后接sb + sth.

其中pass, give, offer, lend, send, sell, show等可接sth + to sb.

buy, build等可接sth + for sb.

另外,若sth是代词时,不用双宾结构。Please pass it to me.

七.部分词作连词与介词:(连词接句子,介词接名词或代词)

Keep care l when you are listening to the teacher. (连词)

Keep care l when listening to the teacher. (介词)

类似的,while, than, before, after, as, since, until等。

如:I ll wait until I hear from her. (连词)

I ll wait until next Friday. (介词)

八.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之一: 1. 动词ed作形容词:表示被动或已发生,常作定语。The boy named Peter is my friend

.

那个叫做彼得的男孩是我的朋友。划线部分起修饰作用,下同。

He s eating fried chicken. 他在吃炸鸡。There is no time left.

I have read a novel writtenby Lu Xun.我读了一部鲁迅写的小说。

He lives in a house builttwenty years ago.

2. 动词ing作形容词:表示正进行或功能,常作定语。

the ing boy, a running bus, the rising sun, a bus running on the road, the boy ing in the corner (正进行)

a sitting room, the sleeping car, the bathing suit (功能)

九.动词ed与动词ing作形容词用法之二:和心理感受有关,但ed修饰人,ing常修饰物。I felt surprised at his words.

How exciting the film is! / I want to go to a place which is relaxing.

一○.动词ing和带to不定式作主语:

To be a teacher is my dream. Working hard brings you success.

Taking care of our environment is very important.

To plant trees makes me happy. (谓语用单数)

Reading books gives you knowledge. (谓语用单数)

Listening and writing are both difficult. (谓语用复数)

一一. 也 :either, 用于否定句的末尾。also, 通常挨着动词,少用于句尾。too, 通常在句尾,前常有逗号。as well, 只用于句尾。

注意:后三个词都不用于否定句。

一二.带to不定式用法之一:带to不定式有逻辑宾语在前时,to后动词用及物动词,不及物时需加介词。The apples are too tall for the boy to reach. /The zoo is not a good place for animals to live in.

一三.及物动词+副词:put on/off/away/up/down/out; break off/down;

turn on/off/up/down; get back; use up; give away/out/up/back; try out/on; ring/call up; let down; clean up/out; set up; think up; hand in/out; fix up; work out; ;dress up;pick up; help out;

keep off/out/down cut down; write down; wake up(叫醒);

take off/away; sell out; look up/over; eat up; throw away/off

宾语是名词时,可放在中间或后边,是代词时只放在中间。

一四.prefer用法:prefer sth/doing sth to sth/doing sth比起 更喜欢

prefer to do sth rather than do sth宁愿 也不愿

prefer to do sth / prefer doing sth 更喜欢做某事

一五. some-, any-, every-用法:1some- 某~,一些~ ,用于肯定的陈述句中。I have something to tell you. Maybe somebody has taken it. 若用于疑问句中表示期待对方肯定的回答或表示请求或建议. Why not ask somebody to help you? Shall we give him something to eat? What about some milk? Could you please lend me some chairs? 2any-, 在疑问句中仍译为 某~,一些~ Do you have anything to say?Is anybody in the house?在肯定句和否定句中译为 任何~ You may put the box anywhere in the room. He is taller than any other student in the cl

ass. We don t have anything to eat this morning. 3every- 每~ ,强调所有,既包括此也包括彼。Is everybody here?-No,Tom and Lucy have asked for leave. The glass was broken, and the water went everywhere.

一六.动词时态和形式:八个时态:一般现在时、现在进行时(am/is/are + v.ing)、一般将来时(will/shall/be going to+动词原形)、一般过去时、过去进行时(was/were +v.ing)、现在完成时(have/has + v. 过去分词)、过去完成时(had + v. 过去分词)、过去将来时(would + v. 原形) 六个形式:原形;过去式;过去分词;第三人称单数(加s/es);现在分词(v.ing);带to不定式。

一七.因为:because, 常是对why的回答,语气最强。

since, 位置:Since , . Since it s already late, I must go now.

for, 位置: ,for .语气最弱。I drove carefully, for it s snowing.

as有时也指 因为 ,用法基本无限制。

一八.表推测:must, may, might, can, could, can t

must 一定 ,可能性最大,常用于肯定句。

There is the door bell, it must be Tom.

may / might 也许 一般用于肯定句, may比might可能性大。

She is coming to us. She might be our new teacher.

can / could 可能 could比can语气更委婉。但can多用于否定。

You could be right, but I don t think you are.

The light in the office is off. The teacher can t be there now.

一九.so与such区别:so是副词,后跟形容词/副词,so tall/slowly

such是形容词,后跟名词短语。such bad weather / good news ;

such a beautiful girl / an important lesson / a heavy stone ;

such kind boys / new desks / friendly people / amazing movies ;

若名词前形容词是many, much, few, little时,不用such, 而用so.

so many flowers / much rain / few friends / little water

也常有 so / such that 句型,译为 如此 以致于 。

二○.so的另两个用法:1so + be/情态动词/助动词+主语, 也

上下文所指不是同一个人或物。The twins are working, so am I.

I will stay up tonight, and so will Peter.

以及对话形式:A: I woke up late this morning. B: So did I.

2so + 主语 + be/情态动词/助动词, 的确 是 上下文所指是同一个人或物。A: We have lunch at school. B:

二一.the number of / a number of: 前者 的数量 后者 许多的

都跟可数名词复数。前者作主语,谓语用单数;后者作主语,谓语用复数。The number of the trees is two thousand. 用单数is.

A number of trees have been cut down.用复数have.

40.延续性动词:How long,since,for,(以上见84)until/till等所在肯定句中的主句谓语要用延续性动词。

How long may I keep this novel? I ve lived here since 2002.

Let s wait until he comes back.. 但否定句中可用短暂性动词:

I haven t seen you for

a long time.

二二.all/each/both/none/either/neither:

1All boys/All of the boys are from China. all 接可数复数,谓语也用复数。All of the water is polluted. 若接不可数,谓语用单数。

2Each boy/Each of the boys has a different bag. each接名词单数或接of + 限定词+复数,后谓语都用单数。

3Both of the twins are clever. 后面谓语用复数。

4None of the students has/have been there before.

none +of +限定词+复数, 谓语用单、复数都可。另见88

5-When shall we meet, Saturday or Sunday?

-Either day is OK. / Either of the days is OK. 谓语用单数。

6-When shall we meet, Saturday or Sunday?

-Sorry, I have to look after my mother these two days. That is, neither time is OK. / neither of the days is OK. 谓语用单数。

all/each/none分别指三者或更多中的 都 / 每一个 / 没有一个 。both/either/neither两者中 都 / 任何一个 / 没有一个

二三. Must I / May I / Need I ? 用法:1Must I ?我必须 吗?

A: Must I finish the work? B: Yes, you must. / No, you needn t.

2May I ?我可以 吗?A: May I go out for a walk now?

B: Yes, you can. / No, you mustn t/can t.

3Need I ?我有必要 吗?

A: Need I clean the house? B: Yes, you must. / No, you needn t.

二四.hundred/thousand/million/billion: 前有具体数字,不加s及of. 否则加s, 加of. 如:thousands of trees; many millions of people.

nine hundred people, ten thousand students等。但前若有several,后常不加s和of:several million pounds

二五.反意疑问句(QT)部分用法:1something, nothing, anything, everything作主语,QT主语用it.

Something is wrong, isn t it? / Nothing is difficult, is it?

2I think Lucy can do well in the exam, can t she?

I don t think he will come here on time, will he?

QT要结合think后的从句而定。

3祈使句的QT一般用will you? 而Let s 用shall we?

Get up now, will you? Don t be noisy, will you?

Be quiet, will you? Please don t talk, will you?

Let us do it now, will you? Let s do it now, shall we?

4There be句型,QT主语用there.

There is a man working in the field, isn tthere?

There used to be a meeting on Friday, didn tthere?

There won t be a movie in the theatre, willthere?

二六.虚拟语气部分用法:在非真实条件句中要用虚拟语气,即if 从句中用一般过去时,而主句动词用would/should+动词原形,表示与现在相反的主观设想,也可以表示在说话人看来实现的可能性很小的情况。(注意:虚拟语气中的be动词都要用were.)

If there were no air, people would die. (与现在事实相反)

If I got rich, I would travel around the world. (可能性很小)

二七.other/others/the other/the others/another:

1如果不特定指出哪一个,是泛指, 另一个 要用another, 后加可数名词单数。If you are still thirsty, you may have another cup of tea. (没特定指出哪一杯茶,是泛指。cup是单数。)

another也可+数字+可数复数:The meeting will last another two hours. / We need another six desks.

2如果只有两个或只有两部分,就给出了范围,其中另一个或另一部分是特指 (other前有the.),有如下用法:

第一种,所说内容只有两个:

Mrs. Green has two sons, one is interested in math, the other (one / son) is good at science. 【只有两个,用the other, 不加s, 后面名词可省略。】 又如:This pair of shoes is strange. One is blue, yet the other is green. 这双鞋子很怪,一只蓝色,而另一只绿色。

第二种,只有两部分:此种 情况下the other后接可数名词复数,或不接名词而只在the other后加s. Two fifths of the students in our class are boys, the other students are girls / the others are girls. Two children went, but the others stayed. (其他孩子都留下了。)

3如果没有显示出只有两部分,未给出范围,则是泛指,不加the.

Lei Feng liked helping other people / others.

Have you any other questions?

Alice didn t like that dress, so she asked to see some others.

4other的另一用法:用比较级的形式,体现最高级的含义。

He is taller than any other boy in his class. (划线中boy用单数) =

He is taller than all the other boys in his class. (划线中boy用复数)

他比班里任何男孩都高(他是班里男孩中最高的)。

二八.how long/how often/how soon/how far: 1how long 是对长度或时间段提问。How long is the river? -It s 5,000 kilometers long.

How long have you lived there? -For five months. / Since 2002.

2how often是对频率提问,如:never, sometimes, often, usually, always, once a week, twice a day, three times a year, every day等。

How often do you watch TV? -Every two days. / Twice a week.

【若只有次数,则用how many times 提问:

How many times do you watch TV a week? -Twice. / only once.】

3how soon 是对 in + 时间段 提问:

How soon will you return to Beijing? -In a week./ In two days.

4how far是对时间段 s + walk/ride/drive或计量表达提问。

-How far is it from your home to the school?

-Five minutes walk. /An hour s ride. /Thirteen minutes drive.

或者说:It s about 20 kilometers (far) away. (问和回答不同。)

二九.分数表达:二分之一: half a/an 或a half. 如:

half an hour= a half hour半小时 It s half past seven.(省略冠词)

以下情况中,分子(基数词)若超过一,分母(序数词)需加s:

三分之一: a /one third 三分之二: two thirds

四分之一: a/one fourth 或a/one quarter

四分之三: three fourths或three quarters.

五分之一: a/one fifth 五分之二: two fifths 其它类推。

若分数所在of短语作主语,谓语依of后的名词而定:

Two fifths of the students are on time. (指名词复数时,谓用复) Two fifths of the land is polluted. (指不可数时,谓用单)

三○.到达:1get to + 地点 get to Shanghai/London/

China

接地点副词时,不带to. get there/home/here.

2arrive in+大地点(Beijing/Zhengzhou),arrive at+小地点(school/hospital), arrive只作不及物动词。所以也可单独用:Please ring me up when you arrive.

reach只作及物动词,后直接加地点:reach Beijing/England

但常不说reach home/there/here.

三一.感叹句:What + 名词短语+主语+谓语!

What lazy boys (they are)! What hard work! What good news!

What a good idea! What bad weather (it is)! What a pity!

How +形容词 / 副词+ 主语+ 谓语!

How hard the work is! How fast he runs! How rude you are!

How carefully they are listening! How bad the weather is!

三二.because/ instead / out等与加of的区别:

1because 后接句子,because of 接名词或代词。

He didn t come because he was ill. / because of his illness.

2instead是副词,单独在句尾。instead of 还要接名词或代词。

We didn t have rice, we had noodles instead. / instead of it.

3out 副词,可单独用,但若接地点,先加of.(也可作介词,

向 外 ,可不加of. 一般不要求掌握。)

He went out early.或He went out of the house early.

三三.too much, too many与much too:

much too 过于 ,加形容词或副词原级。much too big/slowly等。

too much 太多的 ,加不可数名词。too much work/rain等。

too many 太多的 ,加可数复数。too many books/people等。

三四. alone / lonely: 1alone, 独自一人;单独 不含感情色彩。

可当形容词,但只在系动词后作表语:Jack is alone. 杰克是单身。

The old woman is alone in the house. 那位老妇一个人在屋里。

可当副词,修饰动词:She lives alone. 她独居。

Can you move the stone alone? 你能独自搬动那块儿石头吗?

Dick is walking on the beach alone. 狄克独自在海滩漫步。

(注意:不可说very alone. 但可说very much alone. 是特例)

2lonely, 孤独的;寂寞的 带有伤感色彩。只当形容词。

可在系动词后作表语:The old man is lonely.这位老人是孤独的。

He has many relatives, but he feels lonely. 他有很多亲戚,但感到孤独。(lonely 和心理感受有关,而alone和心理感受无关。)

也可在名词前作定语:a lonely person一位孤独的人

a lonely village一个偏僻的村庄 (alone不可作定语)

三五.belong to与be: This suit belongs to me /Lucy /my brother. (人)

This suit is mine /Lucy s /my brother s /hers. (某物是某人的)

57.by常见用法:1 通过 I study English by memorizing grammar. You can know it by looking it up in a dictionary. He travels by bike.

2 截止到 Will you finish the task by tomorrow?

The train had left by the time he got there.

3 被 This novel was written by Lu Xun.

4 经过 He passed by me without noticing me.

5 在 旁边 Sit by me. They are playing by the river.

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